30 Significant Medical Achievements and Their Country of Origin


(ref: wikipedia.org, about.com, various other sources)

Much debate occurs today about whether a country’s chosen health system impedes or encourages discovery and invention in the medical field. The fact is… innovation occurs wherever fertile and creative minds are trying to address real human need. Here is a list of a few significant discoveries/inventions:

  1. Adrenaline (epinephrine): Isolated and used to treat asthma by Jokichi Takamine (Japan)
  2. Artificial heart: Paul Winchell (USA) holds the original patent for an implantable artificial heart. Oddly enough, he was also an accomplished ventriloquist who was the voice of Tigger in Disney’s Winnie the Pooh
  3. Aspirin: Felix Hoffmann (Germany) – he also synthesized heroin
  4. Beta blockers: Sir James Black (UK) made a number of contributions to understanding of cardiology for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1988. Among his inventions was the first of a class of beta blocker drugs which among other things offers cardioprotection after a heart attack and reduce high blood pressure.
  5. Bone marrow compatibility test: Barbara Bain (Canada)
  6. Cardiac pacemaker: The idea for the pacemaker came from J A McWilliam in 1889 (UK). The first external pacemaker was designed and built by John Hopps (Canada). Earl Bakken (USA) developed the first externally wearable pacemaker. The first implantable pacemaker was designed by Rune Elmqvist and Ake Senning (Sweden).
  7. CAT scan: Godfrey Hounsfield (UK), Alban Cormac (USA, born in South Africa)
  8. Clinical trials: Austin Bradford Hill (UK)
  9. Contact lenses: Leonardo Da Vinci (Italy)
  10. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) – Justin Ho (UK). The first portable EKG was developed by Taro Takemi (Japan)
  11. Fetal monitor: K. Hammacher (Germany), Hewlett-Packard Co (USA, Germany)
  12. Heart lung machine: John Heysham Gibbon (USA)
  13. Heart transplant: Christiaan Barnard (South Africa) successfully transplanted the first human heart from one person to another
  14. Helicobacter pylori: Barry Marshall and Robin Warren (Australia) discovered this bacterium which causes stomach ulcers
  15. Hepatitis B vaccine: Baruch Blumberg, Irving Millman (USA)
  16. HIV: Luc Montagnier (France) is credited for discovering HIV as the cause for AIDS
  17. In vitro fertilization: John Rock (USA) extracted the first intact fertilized human egg. Carl Wood (Australia) pioneered the use of frozen embryos. Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards (UK) carried out the first successful procedure resulting in the birth of a healthy infant, Louise Brown.
  18. Insulin: Isolated by Frederick Banting, Charles Best, J.J.R. Macleod, James Collip (Canada). They also pioneered the process for using insulin to treat diabetes
  19. Medical ultrasound: Karl Theodore Dussik (Austria), Ian Donald (Scotland)
  20. Nuclear medicine: Taro Tekemi (Japan)
  21. Pasteurization: Developed by Louis Pasteur (France) as a method to kill germs. Pasteur also developed the germ theory of infection
  22. Penicillin: Alexander Fleming (Scotland)
  23. Polio vaccine: Jonas Salk, Albert Sabin (USA)
  24. Smallpox vaccine: Although Edward Jenner (UK) is credited with developing the vaccine, his work was based on an existing innoculation technique brought back from Turkey by Lady Mary Montague. It was Jenner, however, that invented the term “vaccination”
  25. Spray-on-skin: Fiona Wood (Australia) developed this for burn victims
  26. Structure of DNA: Rosalind Franklin (UK), Francis Crick (UK), James Watson (USA)
  27. Surgery: Abu Al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Andalusia) is considered the father of modern surgery
  28. Tuberculosis vaccine: Albert Calmette, Charles Guerin (France)
  29. Viagra: Ian Osterloh (UK) – OK, not that significant, but interesting
  30. Xray: Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen (Germany)

Also check out…
75 Countries and Life Expectancy for Living There

<p>(ref: <a href=”http://www.wikipedia.org&#8221; target=”_blank”>wikipedia.org</a>, <a href=”http://www.about.com&#8221; target=”_blank”>about.com</a>, various other sources)</p>
<p>Much debate occurs today about whether one country’s health system impedes or encourages discovery and invention in the medical field. The fact is… innovation occurs wherever fertile and creative minds are trying to address real human need. Here is a list of a few significant discoveries/inventions:</p>
<ol>
<li><strong>Adrenaline (epinephrine):</strong> Isolated and used to treat asthma by Jokichi Takamine (Japan)</li>
<li> <strong>Artificial heart:</strong> Paul Winchell (USA) holds the original patent for an implantable artificial heart. Oddly enough, he was also an accomplished ventriloquist who was the voice of Tigger in Disney’s Winnie the Pooh</li>
<li> <strong>Cardiac pacemaker:</strong> John Hopps (Canada)</li>
<li> <strong>CAT scan:</strong> Godfrey Hounsfield (UK), Alban Cormac (USA, born in South Africa)</li>
<li> <strong>Clinical trials:</strong> Austin Bradford Hill (UK)</li>
<li> <strong>Contact lenses:</strong> Leonardo Da Vinci (Italy)</li>
<li> <strong>Fetal monitor:</strong> K. Hammacher (Germany), Hewlett-Packard Co (USA, Germany)</li>
<li> <strong>Heart lung machine:</strong> John Heysham Gibbon (USA)</li>
<li> <strong>Heart transplant:</strong> Christiaan Barnard (South Africa) was the first to succesfully transplant the first human heart from one person to another</li>
<li> <strong>Hepatitis B vaccine:</strong> Baruch Blumberg, Irving Millman (USA)</li>
<li> <strong>HIV:</strong> Luc Montagnier (France) is credited for discovering HIV as the cause for AIDS</li>
<li> <strong>Insulin:</strong> Isolated by Frederick Banting, Charles Best, J.J.R. Macleod, James Collip (Canada). They also pioneered the process for using insulin to treat diabetes</li>
<li> <strong>Medical ultrasound:</strong> Karl Theodore Dussik (Austria), Ian Donald (Scotland)</li>
<li> <strong>Pasteurization:</strong> Developed by Louis Pasteur (France) as a method to kill germs. Pasteur also developed the germ theory of infection</li>
<li> <strong>Penicillin:</strong> Alexander Fleming (Scotland)</li>
<li> <strong>Polio vaccine:</strong> Jonas Salk, Albert Sabin (USA)</li>
<li> <strong>Smallpox vaccine:</strong> Although Edward Jenner (UK) is credited with developing the vaccine, his work was based on an existing innoculation technique brought back from Turkey by Lady Mary Montague</li>
<li> <strong>Structure of DNA:</strong> Rosalind Franklin (UK), Francis Crick (UK), James Watson (USA)</li>
<li> <strong>Surgery:</strong> Abu Al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Andalusia) is considered the father of modern surgery</li>
<li> <strong>Tuberculosis vaccine: </strong>Albert Calmette, Charles Guerin (France)</li>
<li> <strong>Viagra:</strong> Ian Osterloh (UK)</li>
<li> <strong>Xray:</strong> Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen (Germany)</li>
</ol>
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